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Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship

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Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus ; c. In his early youth he served as a priest of the god Elagabalus in the hometown of his mother's family, Emesa. As a private Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus. He was called Elagabalus only after his death. Inthe emperor Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship was assassinated and replaced by his Praetorian prefectMarcus Opellius Macrinus.

Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship maternal aunt, Julia Maesasuccessfully instigated a revolt among the Third Legion to have her eldest grandson and Caracalla's cousinElagabalus, declared emperor in his place.

Macrinus was defeated on 8 Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship at the Battle of Antioch. Elagabalus, barely 14 years old, became emperor, Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship a reign remembered mainly for sex scandals and religious controversy. Later historians suggest Elagabalus showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos.

He replaced the traditional head of the Roman pantheonJupiterwith the deity Elagabalus, of whom he had been high priest. He forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating this deity, over which he personally presided. Elagabalus was supposedly "married" as many as five times, lavishing favours on male courtiers popularly thought to have been his lovers, [3] [4] and was reported to have prostituted himself in the imperial palace.

His Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship estranged the Praetorian Guardthe Senateand the common people alike. Amidst growing opposition, Elagabalus, just 18 years old, was assassinated and replaced by his cousin Severus Alexander on 11 Marchwho Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship for 13 years before his own assassination, which marked the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century.

The assassination plot against Elagabalus was devised by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, and carried out by disaffected members of the Praetorian Guard. Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for extreme eccentricitydecadenceand zealotry. Edward Gibbonfor example, wrote that Elagabalus "abandoned himself to the grossest pleasures and ungoverned fury". His father was initially a member of the Equites class, but was later elevated to the rank of senator.

His grandmother, Julia Maesawas the widow of the consul Julius Avitusthe sister of Julia Domnaand the sister-in-law of Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship emperor Septimius Severus.

Elagabalus's family held hereditary rights to the priesthood of the Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship god Elagabal, of whom Elagabalus was the high priest at Emesa modern Homs in Roman Syria. The deity Elagabalus was initially venerated at Emesa. The cult of Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship deity spread to other parts of the Roman Empire in the 2nd century; a dedication has been found as far away as Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Netherlandsnear the Roman limes.

When the Emperor Macrinus came to power, he suppressed Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship threat against his reign from the family of his assassinated predecessor, Caracalla, by exiling them—Julia Maesa, Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship two daughters, and her Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship grandson Elagabalus—to their estate at Emesa in Syria. His mother publicly declared that Emperador Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship homosexual relationship was the illegitimate son of Caracalla, and therefore deserving the loyalty of Roman soldiers and senators who had sworn allegiance to Caracalla.

At sunrise on Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship MayEmperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Valerius Comazoncommander of the legion, declared him Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship. In response Macrinus dispatched his Praetorian prefect Ulpius Julianus to the region with a contingent of Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship elagabalus homosexual relationship he considered strong enough to crush the rebellion.

However, this force soon Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship the faction of Elagabalus when, during the battle, they turned on their own commanders. The officers were killed and Julianus' head was sent back to the emperor.

Macrinus now sent letters to the Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship denouncing Elagabalus as the False Antoninus and claiming he was insane.

Macrinus and his son, weakened by the desertion of the Second Legion due to bribes and promises circulated by Julia Maesa, were defeated on 8 June at the Battle Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Antioch by troops commanded by Gannys. Elagabalus declared the date of the victory at Antioch to be the beginning of his reign and assumed the imperial titles without prior senatorial approval.

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Letters of reconciliation were Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship to Rome extending amnesty to the Senate and recognizing the laws, while also condemning the administration of Macrinus and Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship son. The senators responded by acknowledging Elagabalus as emperor and accepting his claim to be the son of Caracalla.

Elagabalus and his entourage spent the winter of in Bithynia at Nicomedia[27] where the emperor's religious beliefs first presented themselves as a problem. The contemporary historian Cassius Dio suggests that Gannys was in fact killed by the new emperor because he pressured Elagabalus to live "temperately and prudently".

The legions were dismayed by his behaviour and quickly came to regret Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship supported his accession. When the entourage reached Rome in the autumn ofComazon and other allies of Julia Maesa and Elagabalus were given powerful and lucrative positions, to the chagrin of many senators who did not consider them worthy of such privileges. He also demonetized the antoninianus during this period in Rome.

Elagabalus tried to have his presumed lover, Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship charioteer Hieroclesdeclared Caesar[38] while another alleged lover, the athlete Aurelius Zoticus, was appointed to the non-administrative but influential position of Master of the Chamber, or Cubicularius. His mother and grandmother became the first women to be allowed into Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Senate, [41] and both received senatorial titles: Soaemias the established Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship of Clarissima, and Maesa the Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship unorthodox Mater Castrorum et Senatus "Mother of the army camp and of the Senate".

Indeed, they exercised great influence Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship the young emperor throughout his reign, and can be found on many coins and inscriptions—a rare honor for Roman women. Since the reign of Septimius Severussun worship had increased throughout the Empire. As a token of respect for Roman religion, however, Elagabalus joined either AstarteMinervaUraniaor some combination of the three to Elagabal as consort.

In fact, there may have been an effort to introduce Elagabal, Urania, and Athena Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship the new Capitoline triad of Rome—replacing Jupiter, Junoand Minerva. He aroused further Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship when he married the Vestal Virgin Aquilia Severaclaiming the marriage would produce "godlike children".

A lavish temple called the Elagabalium was built on the east face of the Palatine Hill to house Elagabal, who was represented by a black conical Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship from Emesa. In order to become the high priest of his new religion, Elagabalus had himself circumcised.

A six horse chariot carried the divinity, the horses huge and flawlessly white, with expensive gold fittings and rich ornaments.

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No one held the reins, and no one rode in the chariot; the vehicle was escorted as if the god himself were the charioteer. Elagabalus ran backward in front of the chariot, facing the god Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship holding the horses' reins.

He made the whole journey in this reverse fashion, looking up into the face of his god. The most sacred relics from the Roman religion were transferred from their respective shrines to Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Elagabalium, including the emblem of the Great Motherthe fire of Vestathe Shields of the Saliiand the Palladiumso that no other Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship could be worshipped except Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship association with Elagabal.

The question of Elagabalus' sexual orientation is confused, owing to salacious and unreliable sources.

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Elagabalus married and divorced five women, [47] three Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship whom are known. Within a year, he abandoned her and Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Annia Aurelia Faustina[45] a descendant of Marcus Aurelius and the widow of a man he had recently had executed. He had returned to his second wife Severa by the end of the year. The Augustan History claims that he also married a man named Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship, an athlete from Smyrna, in a public ceremony at Rome.

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Finally, he Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship aside Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship room in the palace and there committed his indecencies, always standing Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship at the door of the room, as the harlots do, and shaking the curtain which hung from gold rings, while in a soft and melting voice he solicited the passers-by.

There were, of course, men who had been specially instructed to play their part. For, as in other matters, so in this business, too, he had numerous agents who sought out those who could best please Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship by their foulness.

He would collect money from his patrons and give Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship airs over his gains; he would also dispute with his associates in this shameful occupation, claiming that he had more lovers than they and took in more money.

Herodian commented Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Elagabalus enhanced his natural good looks by the regular Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship of cosmetics. By Elagabalus' Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship, particularly his relationship with Hierocles, [38] increasingly provoked the soldiers of the Praetorian Guard.

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Prevailing on Elagabalus, she arranged that he appoint his cousin Alexander as his heir and that the boy be given the title of Caesar. Alexander shared the consulship with the emperor that year. Following the failure of various attempts on Alexander's life, Elagabalus stripped his cousin of his titles, revoked his consulship, and invented the rumor that Alexander was near death, in order to see how the Praetorians would react.

The Emperor complied and on 11 March Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship publicly presented his cousin along with his own mother, Julia Soaemias. On their arrival the soldiers started cheering Alexander while ignoring Elagabalus, who ordered the summary arrest and execution of anyone who Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship taken part in this display of insubordination. He made an attempt to flee, Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship would have got away Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship by being placed in a chest had Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship not Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship discovered and slain, at the age of eighteen.

His mother, who embraced him and clung tightly to him, perished Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship him; their heads were cut off and their bodies, after being stripped naked, were first dragged all over the city, and then the mother's body was cast aside somewhere or other, while his was thrown into the [Tiber].

Following his assassination, many associates of Elagabalus were killed or deposed, Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship his lover Hierocles. The source of many of these stories of Elagabalus's depravity is the Augustan History Historia Augustawhich includes controversial claims.

Sources often considered more credible than the Augustan History include the contemporary historians Cassius Dio and Herodian. Cassius Dio lived from the second half of the 2nd century until sometime after Born into a patrician family, he Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship the greater part of his life in public service. He was a senator under emperor Commodus and governor of Smyrna after the death of Septimius Severus.

Afterwards, he served as suffect consul aroundand as proconsul in Africa and Pannonia. Severus Alexander held him in high esteem and made him his consul again. His Roman History spans nearly a millenniumfrom the arrival of Aeneas in Italy until the year As a contemporary of Elagabalus, Cassius Dio's account of his reign is Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship considered more reliable than the Augustan Historyalthough by his own Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship [67] Dio spent the greater part of the relevant period outside of Rome and had to Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship on second-hand information.

Furthermore, the political Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship in the aftermath of Elagabalus' reign, as well as Dio's own position within the government Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Alexander Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship influenced the truth of this part of his history for Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship worse.

Dio regularly refers to Elagabalus as Sardanapaluspartly to Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship him from his divine namesake, [68] but chiefly to do his part in maintaining the damnatio memoriae and to associate him with another autocrat notorious for a dissolute life. Another Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship of Elagabalus' was Herodiana minor Roman civil servant who lived from c. His work largely overlaps Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Dio's own Roman Historybut the texts, Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship independently of Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship other, agree more Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship than not about the emperor and his short but eventful reign.

Although Herodian Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship not deemed as reliable as Cassius Dio, his lack of literary and scholarly Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship make him less biased than senatorial historians. Herodian is considered the most important source for the religious reforms which took Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship during the reign of Elagabalus, which have been confirmed by numismatic [71] [72] and archaeological evidence.

For readers of the modern age, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon —94 further cemented the scandalous reputation of Elagabalus.

Gibbon not only accepted and expressed outrage at the allegations of the ancient historians, but he Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship have added some details of his own; he is the first historian known to claim that Gannys was a eunuchEmperador elagabalus homosexual relationship example. To confound the order of the season and climate, to sport with the passions and prejudices of his subjects, and to subvert every law of nature and decency, were in the number of his most delicious amusements.

A long train Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship concubines, and a rapid succession of wives, among whom was a vestal virgin, ravished by force from her sacred asylum, were insufficient to satisfy the impotence of his passions.

The master Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship the Roman world affected to copy the manners and dress of the female sex, preferring the distaff to the sceptre, and dishonored the principal dignities of the empire by distributing them among his numerous lovers; one of whom was publicly invested with the title and authority of the emperor's, or, as he more properly styled himself, the empress's husband.

It may seem probable, the vices and follies of Elagabalus have been adorned by fancy, and blackened by prejudice.

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Yet, confining ourselves to the public scenes displayed before Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship Roman people, and attested by grave and contemporary historians, their inexpressible infamy surpasses that of any other age or country. The 20th-century anthropologist James George Frazer famous for The Golden Bough took seriously the monotheistic aspirations of the emperor, but also ridiculed him: It was the intention of this eminently religious but crack-brained despot to supersede the worship of all the gods, not only at Rome but throughout the world, by the single Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship of Elagabalus or the Sun.

Stuart Hay, "a serious and systematic study" [77] more sympathetic than that of previous historians, which nonetheless stressed the exoticism of Elagabalus, calling his reign one of "enormous wealth and excessive prodigality, luxury and aestheticism, carried to their ultimate extreme, and sensuality in all the refinements of its Eastern habit.

Some recent historians paint Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship more favorable picture of the emperor's rule. Martijn Icks, in Images of Elagabalus Emperador elagabalus homosexual relationship republished as The Crimes of Elagabalus indoubts the reliability of the ancient sources and argues that it was the emperor's unorthodox religious policies that alienated the power elite of Rome, to the point that his grandmother saw fit to eliminate him and replace him with his cousin.

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