The incidence of chronic kidney disease CKD is increasing in Korea, especially in the aged population.
We categorized the participants into five GFR groups: Except for the general health perception and mental health scale, all the other scores of the SF scales Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction differences among five groups categorized according to GFR.
Other factors, such as age, gender, duration of education, regular exercising habits, depression and a history of cardiovascular accident, were also predictors of
A lower haemoglobin level was related to the mental component summary. Chronic kidney disease CKD is a worldwide health problem. The Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction of CKD was The risks of death, cardiovascular events and hospitalization were increased with decreasing GFR values [ 3 ] and the prevalence of hypertension, anaemia, limitations in mobility, hypoalbuminaemia Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction bone metabolism disorders was also gradually increased in accordance with an increase of CKD stage [ 4 ].
Several studies have reported the health-related quality of life HRQOL of patients with chronic renal insufficiency [ Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction ]. The HRQOL of patients with mild to moderate chronic renal insufficiency Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction shown to be lower than that for the general population [ 5,68,9 ] but Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction than that of patients undergoing dialysis [ 6,7 ].
Therefore, knowledge of the
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction of renal function in relation to a decrease of HRQOL would be useful to ensure adequate and timely intervention. Two studies from India addressed the issue of the mean GFR values of healthy kidney donors being smaller than those from America Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction 15,16 ].
These studies implied that normal GFR values differ among various races. If the normal values of GFR were different, the level of GFR related to the manifestation of symptoms would be different. In addition, HRQOL in patients with Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction same
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction of renal function may differ according to nationality, as suggested by Tsuji-Hayashi [ 18 ].
Therefore, we analysed this population-based data to determine the level of renal function related to the decreased HRQOL and to define the risk factors for poor HRQOL in the Korean elderly population. Two subject samples were prepared from the following populations: For the elderly sample Sample-EDa simple random sample persons, 1.
The sampled subjects were invited to participate in the study by letter and telephone. In the baseline study, all the participants had a standardized clinical interview, consisting of physical and neurological examinations by three clinicians who were experts in geroneuropsychiatric research.
An additional extensive interview using standardized questionnaires was carried out three nurses who were certified as specialized nurses for dementia and had received additional training on the assessment of elderly patients for 3 months before the study commenced. Comprehensive neuropsychological was carried out by four neurophysiologists, who were experts in dementia research. Income was graded by the criterion of the lowest monthly cost Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction living per household according to the number of family members, as provided by the Korean government.
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction lowest monthly cost of living per household with four family members was US dollars. The designated level of income grade 1 was less than the lowest cost of living, whereas grade 2 was designated as income ranging from the lowest cost of living to twice Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction lowest cost of living and grade 3, as more than twice the lowest living cost.
Regular exercise was defined as an exercise regimen for a minimum of 30 min three times or greater, Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction week. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure value of mmHg or greater, Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction diastolic blood pressure of 90 or greater or the use of blood pressure-lowering medication.
Coronary heart disease was defined as a self-reported history of angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass operation. The participants were categorized into five GFR group 1: Research psychiatrists conducted an assessment with mini international neuropsychiatric Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction MINI version 5. SF eight health parameters: subjects answered the questionnaires with the aid of explanations from three nurses regarding each parameter of the SF All analyses were conducted using SPSS Differences in continuous variables
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction analysed by two-tailed, unpaired t -tests or one-way ANOVA tests and in categorical variables, by chi-square tests.
We identified the factors related to SF component summary scores in the elderly population using simple linear regression analysis. To determine whether the GFR category or GFR value was associated independently with the SF component summary scores, we used the multiple linear regression model adjusted for factors selected by simple linear regression analysis. The mean serum creatinine levels in men and women were calculated to be 1.
The mean GFR values for all participants, males and females were found to be Hypertension was identified in The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were Among the participants, 14 persons did not answer the question of marital status, and of the otheronly three had not been married.
The spouses of participants were dead and 20 participants were reported to have been divorced. The remaining participants were still married and were living with their spouses at the
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction of survey.
Information about household income was obtained from participants, of whom The mean duration of education was 7. Number by the values: Twelve participants omitted the serum creatinine test and GFR values were estimated in the remaining subjects.
The participant number according to the GFR group was as follows: The mean age of GFR group 5 was the oldest Table 1. The proportion Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction females was increased in groups with lower GFR. The frequency of being married was decreased with decreasing GFR. In particular, the frequency of hypertension in GFR group 5 was the highest and the rate of documented CHD in GFR
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction 5 was the highest significantly higher than that of the other groups.
The haemoglobin was significantly decreased in group 5. The frequency of proteinuria was predominantly high in GFR group 5.
Among all the participants, the score of general health perception was the Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction, followed by vitality scores Table 2. Physical health scores tended to be lower than mental health scores, particularly in participants with lower GFR values. In GFR group 5, all physical health scores were lower than mental health scores, except vitality, which was on a similar level to that of bodily pain.
All the scores of the scales, except general health perception and mental health, showed differences among the GFR groups and were significantly decreased only in GFR group 5 compared to the other groups. Without adjustment, the physical component summary and the mental Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction summary were also decreased in GFR
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction 5.
Figure 1 compares the SF summary scores among the GFR groups after adjustment with and clinical factors, which are closely associated with HRQOL in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. After correction for the factors of age, gender, income, marital status, duration of education, comorbidities, serum haemoglobin and serum albumin, the physical component summary score remained the lowest in GFR group 5. The mean SF component summary scores of GFR groups adjusted with factors that are known to be related to quality Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction life in pre-dialysis patients.
Number over the bars: Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction analyse the predictors for HRQOL, we selected univariate factors Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction the SF summary scores by applying the simple linear regression test Table 3. Among 24 different factors, GFR, age, gender, duration of education, living spouse income status, regular exercise habits, depression, history of cerebrovascular accident, serum albumin level and serum haemoglobin level were related to the mental and the physical scores of SF Serum Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction levels were also related to the physical component summary.
Ageing was also associated with a decrease
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction both component summary scores. The mean values of the physical and mental component summaries of females were lower than that of males The physical and mental component summaries in participants whose spouses were alive were larger than those of Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction whose spouses were dead or absent Both summary scores of SF were significantly lower among persons with less education and lower household income, an absence of regular exercise habits, depression, a history of cerebrovascular accident, lower serum albumin levels, lower serum glucose levels and lower haemoglobin levels.
Results of simple linear Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction test for the factors related to SF component summary scores. Other factors, such as age, gender, duration of education, regular exercise habits, depression a history of cardiovascular accident, were also predictors of mental and physical HRQOL.
A lower haemoglobin level was related to the mental component summary Table 4. In that limited group, GFR, age, duration of Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction, regular Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction habits, depression Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction haemoglobin levels were independent predictors Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction the physical component summary. For the mental component summary
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction group, duration of education, regular exercise habits, depression and haemoglobin levels were significant predictors.
This is the first population-based report to reveal the relationship between renal function and HRQOL in an elderly Korean population. SF is applicable to healthy individuals as well as to patients with CKD, in whom the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the test have been verified
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction 23 ]. Han translated SF into Korean and verified its usefulness in Korean elderly people with a mean age of All physical SF scale scores of this study were lower those of the 60 healthy elderly people in Han's report although the social functioning and role-emotional scale scores, which were parts of the mental HRQOL scales, were similar in both studies.
The physical component summary score in GFR group 5 was the lowest but the mental component summary score in this group was Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction different from that of other GFR groups after adjustment with known predictors to HRQOL. In the
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction Research Institute-CKD study RRI-CKDthe mental component summary of patients with renal
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction was not different from that of healthy controls but their physical component summary was significantly lower than the population norm Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction 7 ].
Depression was reported to have been observed at a higher rate in patients who were starting dialysis therapy [ 25,26 ] or under dialysis [ 6 ].
The frequency of depression was lower in CKD patients than in haemodialysis patients [ 6 ] and was not different from
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction of subjects without CKD [ 9 ]. Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction, we observed that physical health declined at an earlier stage of renal dysfunction than mental health did, as has previously been reported in other studies.
With the Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study data, HRQOL measures, particularly the physical component Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction, have a greater capacity to identify patients at risk for death and hospitalization than serum albumin among dialysis patients. Moreover, HRQOL can serve as a sensitive indicator of subsequent patient morbidity and mortality [ 12 ]. They reported that the degree of HRQOL impairment was significantly associated with the degree of renal dysfunction [ 10 ].
Although reported an increasing rate of occurrence of each symptom at decreasing GFR levels, it was uncertain which level of renal function was related to the point of
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction in the HRQOL of CKD patients. There are several reasons why GFR may not be linked in a linear fashion to HRQOL in all participants whose renal functions were distributed from normal to moderately decreased status [ 8 ].
The disorders related to renal impairment are silent until renal dysfunction Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction progressed to the later stages. The interventions to treat disorders related to renal impairment, such as using erythropoietin in dialysis patients, might improve HRQOL in CKD patients. It remains unknown why the relationship between HRQOL and GFR as a Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction variable was different in studies that included subjects with similar renal function.
However, the RRI-CKD study collected complete HRQOL information in only out of patients who filled out the SF which in combination with the different subject characteristics in the various studies may have affected the results. One study reported an improved HRQOL measured by the SF questionnaire after an exercise program was implemented in patients on haemodialysis [ 29 ].
This study had several limitations. Since the MDRD Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction was not fully verified to estimate kidney function in the Korean population, differences in SF scores between the Korean and the American population might just the comparison of different GFR stages and not true differences in CKD experiences of patients in both areas.
We Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction two different selection methods for the subjects. Among participants, the 56 people who did
Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction complete the SF form were older, less educated, poorer and more anaemic than those who completed the questionnaire. This study was planned as a prospective study but these results Dongwan wife sexual dysfunction from the analysis of the first year survey and could not be used to predict the influence of HRQOL on the outcome in the elderly population.