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Male dominance sexually


To explain the origins of female subordination we need a theory that accounts Male dominance sexually the control of women's work by men. Published inWomen's Work, Men's Property: The Origins of Gender and Classedited by Stephanie Coontz and Peta Henderson, comprises five essays by a group of French and American feminist historians and anthropologists, in search of the sociohistorical basis of gender inequality.

Male dominance is one of the earliest known and most widespread forms of inequality Male dominance sexually human history. To some, the very idea of a Male dominance sexually on the origins of sexual inequality is absurd. Male dominance seems to them a universal, if not inevitable, relationship that has been with us since the dawn of our species. A growing body of evidence and theory, however, suggests that this is not the case, and a number of scholars have begun to address the issue of male dominance as a historical phenomenon, grounded in a specific set of circumstances rather than flowing from some Male dominance sexually aspect of human nature or culture.

The essays in this volume offer differing perspectives on the Male Male dominance sexually sexually of sex role differentiation and sexual inequality the two are by no means identicalbut share a belief that these phenomena did have origins, and that these must be sought in sociohistorical events and processes.

Before turning to these theories, we would like critically to review some of the alternative explanations of sexual inequality. A starting point for many theories of gender inequality is the assumption that biology is destiny: One common approach within this general framework of biological reductionism is to explain human sex role patterns and inequalities by reference to our primate heritage.

The fact that sexual submission...

The most popular model for this approach is the baboon. The scenario is as follows: With minor differences in emphasis and use of evidence, a whole series of authors imply that male aggression and dominance with their necessary accompaniment, female passivity or dependence are therefore part of our genetic primate heritage.

Male aggressive instincts are also said to have served early humans well in their role as "predators. There are a number of problems with this approach. In the first place, there is much more variability in primate behaviour than these authors admit.

Some species are highly dimorphic; some are not. Mating patterns range Male dominance sexually monogamy to promiscuity by both males and femaleswhile parenting and socialization behaviours are extraordinarily diverse among different species, or Male dominance sexually in the same species under different environmental conditions.

Intertroop encounters are rare, and Male dominance sexually. When the troop is startled. Similarly, chimpanzees, with whom humans share ninety-nine percent of our genes and from whom we may have diverged as little as five million years ago, are highly social animals who display a very low degree of male dominance, hierarchy, or aggression.

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Where aggression and male dominance are found in primate groups, there is Male dominance sexually question as to how much of this is natural and how much a response to stress. The male dominant savannah baboons live in game parks where predators and humans are concentrated in numbers far Male dominance sexually those likely in Male dominance sexually conditions.

There is considerable evidence that such stressful circumstances, especially captivity, Male dominance sexually increase hierarchy and aggression. Many Male dominance Male dominance sexually now suggest that the normal behaviour patterns of our primate ancestors involved sharing and cooperation rather than aggression, male dominance, and competition.

Finally, there is little evidence that aggressive or dominant behaviour gives males privileged access to females, thus allowing them to pass on their supposedly more aggressive genes. Among chimpanzees and orangutans, sex is usually initiated by the females, and their choices seem to have little to do with the males' rank.

Of course, the capacity for aggressive and dominant behaviour was undoubtedly an important part of primate survival, but Male dominance sexually is not the same thing as having such behaviour determined by our genes.

In general, research is demonstrating that the primates are capable of highly adaptive learning. A no less reductionist approach to the origins of gender inequality is found in the theories of sociobiology. Individuals are believed to be driven by their genes to maximize their "inclusive fitness"; they strive, that is, to maximize the number of their genes passed on to the next generation, even if this lessens their individual fitness.

Thus there is a genetic base for altruism, and such behaviour will be directed toward those to whom the organism is most closely related, with proportionately less investment in more distant kin or strangers.

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Applying these theories to humans, E. Wilson suggests that occasional examples of helpful behaviour toward non-related persons are explained by an additional concept that takes care of the residual cases: Successful cultural behaviour is transmitted between generations and cultures through the genes. The origins of sexual inequality are seen as an outcome of genetically programmed male behaviour derived from the species' hunting heritage and continuously selected for since by war and imperialism.

In hunter-gatherer societies, Male dominance sexually hunt and women stay at home.

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This strong bias persists in most agricultural and industrial Societies and, on that ground alone, appears to have a genetic origin. My Male dominance sexually guess is that the genetic bias is intense enough Male dominance sexually cause a substantial division of labor even in the most free and most egalitarian societies.

Even with identical education and equal access to Male dominance sexually professions, men are likely to continue to play a disproportionate Male dominance sexually in political life, business, and science. Thus sexual selection acting on the prehistoric division of labour by sex tends to create dominant, public-oriented Male dominance sexually and passive, home-centred females. This is reinforced by the different genetic strategies required by males and females in order to maximize their inclusive fitness.

Since males produce literally millions of sperm, any male has a better chance of fathering many individuals if he spreads his sperm widely rather than investing in a few children, who could be killed. There is thus a genetic base for male promiscuity.

Females, on the other hand, can produce relatively few eggs over a lifetime. The sociobiologists thus argue that it is an adaptive genetic trait for females to desire a monogamous union. Women also, they assert, have a genetic bias toward concentrating their reproductive interest on men who are socially, economically, or educationally superior to them, as well as physically fit enough to provide for them and their children. Thus patterns of male domination and female subordination, as well as the sexual double standard, are seen as an outcome of genetically determined mate selection.

This assumption suffers first of all from a confusion of analogy similar traits due to similar functions Male dominance sexually homology common genetic ancestry. As Richard Lewontin, specialist in population genetics at Harvard, notes: The logic is circular.

Furthermore, like the other Male dominance sexually determinist theories, sociobiology tends to ignore the variability that exists among cultural systems and cultural behaviour. For one thing, it is well known that in Male dominance sexually based on kinship as an organizing principle, expediency rather than actual blood relationship dictates the interactions between individuals.

Through the fiction of adoption, complete strangers are assimilated into the group and treated as if they were brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, etc. Although mutual aid is certainly a factor in most relationships between people, genetic relatedness is clearly not the primary factor in such kinship systems.

Among the Trobriand Islanders, for example, a sister's son has more rights to a man's goods than his own son, though his own son carries more of his genetic material. Among the Lakher of Southeast Asia, a child is considered related to his mother only Male dominance sexually virtue Male dominance sexually her marriage to his father.

Male dominance sexually they are divorced, the cooperation and interaction of mother and child cease. In some African and Native American tribes a woman becomes a female husband, and is considered the parent Male dominance sexually the children her wife bears by various lovers.

The child's loyalty is to the social, not the biological, parent. And in many societies, of course, loyalty and sharing extend far beyond the family. In answer to these criticisms, sociobiologists have recently attempted to explain cultural variability through the theory that genes and culture "co-evolve.

As various critics have shown, this Male dominance sexually is seriously flawed. Moreover, the mechanisms Male dominance sexually inheritance are complex and poorly understood. Biologists are beginning to recognize that they are an outcome of the dialectical interaction of biology with environment.

Such an atomistic view fails to take account of culture as a system of interrelated traits. It is an explanation that discounts the inventiveness of human minds and ignores the fact that lack of genetic programming is probably the most important adaptation humans have made. There is evidence Male dominance sexually recent ecological research, for example, that rates of change in the incidence of genetically determined traits in a population are very low, and that it takes even longer for a trait to become established at the level of the group than in the case of individual selection.

If it took genetic changes in a population to Male dominance sexually to new circumstances, humans would probably have died out long ago. Most acquired Male dominance sexually behaviour is thus likely not genetic even if it is adaptive. In sum, although few would dispute that human Male dominance sexually is genetically constrained humans can't fly without the aid of an aeroplanesociobiological theory fails to provide a satisfactory demonstration that either similarities or differences in cultural behaviour can be explained by genetic determination.

The evidence suggests only that the big brain provides the potential for problem-solving ability such as the invention of the aeroplanenot the determination of specific behaviour such as male promiscuityhowever widespread its manifestations in time and place. In most though not all populations, the average male is taller than the average female, both at birth and after puberty, though the average difference between the sexes is a matter of inches, while the normal range of Male dominance sexually within each sex is more than two feet.

Males are also heavier and seem to have Male dominance sexually physical strength, though again the variation among individuals of the same sex is far greater than the average variation between Male dominance sexually sexes.

But physical sexual dimorphism cannot explain the different roles of the sexes, and far less male dominance, as Leibowitz points out in this volume and elsewhere. Among a group like the seventeenth century Iroquois, a strong emphasis on male physical prowess was fully compatible with a high position for women, and indeed there is little evidence that men in most foraging societies use either their strength or Male dominance sexually weapons as a means of controlling women.

Some authors argue, however, that males are innately more aggressive than females. Although recent studies have repudiated the idea that there are significant sex Male dominance sexually in intellect, analytical powers, social skills, or personal motivation, there does seem to be a strong Male dominance sexually in physical aggression Male dominance sexually appears at least as early as the kindergarten years.

Attempts to demonstrate a biological tendency Male dominance sexually aggression as opposed to a biological capacity, which obviously exists have centred on studies of hormones.

High levels of the male hormone testosterone have been correlated with high levels of aggression, and injections of testosterone increase fighting behaviour in rats. Margaret Mead found that women among the Tchambuli were more aggressive than men, that women and men were equally fierce among the Mundugamor, and that neither men nor women were aggressive among the Arapesh. The explanation of social behaviour such as aggression by a single biological factor, moreover, reflects a central weakness of almost all biological determinism.

The methodology of such reductionist theories generally involves introducing a disruption of the organism's normal functioning and then explaining the normal working of the Male dominance sexually by its response to the disturbance. The result "confuses the nature Male dominance sexually the perturbation itself with the 'cause' Male dominance sexually the system's normal functioning. Thus, injections of the female hormone oestrogen also increase fighting behaviour in rats while injections of testosterone into the pre-optic area of a male rat's brain stimulate maternal nest-building behaviour.

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Studies of humans do not show consistent correlations between hormone levels and aggression. When low dominance monkeys are placed with Male dominance sexually toward whom they can safely act aggressively, their testosterone levels go Male dominance sexually when they are returned to an established group Male dominance Male dominance sexually whom they must defer, their testosterone levels fall dramatically. When this was stimulated electrically in laboratory animals, increased fighting resulted.

However, when Male dominance sexually was done in monkeys who were released into the wild the result was increased grooming behaviour. All human behaviour, of course, has a biological base, else it could not exist. But the dominance in Male dominance sexually of the cerebral cortex means that what we do with our biological capacities is almost entirely a matter of learning. The difference in aggression between boys and girls should be considered in Male dominance sexually of the different socialization given them.

The vital impact of expectations can be seen in studies of Male dominance sexually born as hermaphrodites: This was true "even for those individuals whose sex of rearing contradicted their Male dominance sexually sex Male dominance sexually determined by chromasomes, hormones, gonads, and the formation of the internal and external genitals. We conclude that evidence is lacking for clearcut mental or temperamental differences between the sexes.

Even where such differences may be established, it is by no means justified to assume, as most of these theories do, that a sex difference explains a sex inequality. This is a conceptual leap made by a number of other authors, who start from the fact that most societies do recognize and define different social and symbolic functions for the sexes.

These authors argue that the origins of inequality lie not Male dominance sexually naturally different abilities or temperaments, but in cultural attempts to explain or control women's central role in reproduction.

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  • For many radical feminists, sexuality is at the heart of male domination; it is seen as the primary means by which men control women and maintain their power. Dominance and submission (also called D/s) is a set of behaviours, customs, and rituals role in sexual bondage, expressing also a preference for a dominant male, and that 71% of heterosexual males preferred a dominant-initiator role.
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  • To explain the origins of female subordination we need a theory that accounts for the control of women's work by men.
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