Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and typically are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File AMF file usually in sequential layers. Thus, unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing builds a three-dimensional object from a computer-aided design CAD model or Que es tridimensional yahoo dating file, usually by successively adding material layer by layer.
The term "3D printing" originally to a process that deposits a binder material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer. More recently, the term is being used in popular vernacular to encompass a wider variety of additive manufacturing techniques. United States and global technical standards use the official term additive manufacturing for this broader sense. The umbrella term additive manufacturing AM gained wide currency in the s,  inspired by the theme of material being added together in any of various ways.
In contrast, the term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large family of machining processes with material removal as their common theme.
The term 3D printing still referred only to the polymer technologies in most minds, and the term AM was likelier to be used in metalworking and end use part production contexts than among polymer, inkjet, or stereolithography enthusiasts. By the early s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing evolved senses in which they were alternate umbrella terms for additive technologies, one being used in popular vernacular by consumer-maker communities and the media, and the other used more formally by industrial end-use part producers, machine manufacturers, and global technical standards organizations.
Until recently, the term 3D printing has been associated with machines low-end in price or capability. Peter Zelinski, the editor-in-chief of Additive Manufacturing magazine, pointed out in that the terms are still often in casual usage  but that some manufacturing industry experts are increasingly making a sense distinction whereby Additive
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating comprises 3D Que es tridimensional yahoo dating plus other technologies or other aspects of a manufacturing process.
Other terms that have been Que es tridimensional yahoo dating as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturingrapid manufacturing as the logical production-level successor to rapid prototypingand on-demand manufacturing which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing. That such application of the adjectives rapid on-demand to the noun manufacturing was novel in the s reveals the prevailing mental model of the long industrial era in which almost all production
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating involved long lead times for laborious tooling development.
Today, the term subtractive has not replaced
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating term machininginstead complementing it when a term that covers any removal method is needed. Agile tooling is the use of modular means to design tooling that is produced by additive manufacturing or 3D printing methods to enable quick prototyping and responses to tooling and fixture needs. Agile tooling uses a cost effective and high quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs, and it can be used in hydro-formingstampinginjection molding and other manufacturing processes.
Early additive manufacturing equipment and materials were developed in the s. Three weeks later inChuck Hull of Systems Corporation  filed his own patent for a stereolithography fabrication system, in which layers are added by curing photopolymers ultraviolet light lasers.
Hull defined the process as a "system for generating three-dimensional objects Que es tridimensional yahoo dating creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed,". The technology used by most 3D printers to date—especially hobbyist and consumer-oriented models—is fused deposition modelinga special application of plastic extrusiondeveloped in by S.
Scott Crump and commercialized by Que es tridimensional yahoo dating company Stratasyswhich marketed its first FDM machine in AM processes for metal sintering or melting such as selective laser sinteringdirect metal laser sinteringand selective laser melting usually went by their own individual names in the s and s.
At the time, all metalworking was done by processes that we now call non-additive castingfabricationstampingand machining ; although plenty of automation was applied to those technologies such as by robot welding and CNCthe idea of a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a Que es tridimensional yahoo dating of raw material into a desired shape with a toolpath was associated in metalworking only with processes that removed metal rather than adding itsuch as CNC millingCNC EDMand many others.
But the automated techniques that added metal, which would later be called additive manufacturing, were beginning to challenge that assumption. By the mids, new techniques for material deposition were developed at Stanford and Carnegie Mellon Universityincluding microcasting  and sprayed materials.
The term 3D printing originally referred to a powder bed process employing standard and custom inkjet print heads, developed at MIT in and commercialized by Soligen Technologies, Extrude Hone Corporation, and Z Corporation. The year also saw the start of a company called Solidscapeintroducing a high-precision polymer jet fabrication system with soluble support structures, categorized as a "dot-on-dot" technique. In the Fraunhofer developed the selective laser melting process.
As the various additive processes matured, it became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the only Que es tridimensional yahoo dating process done through a tool or head moving a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer.
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating the first decade in which metal end use parts such as engine brackets  and large nuts  would be grown either before or instead of machining in job production rather than obligately being machined from bar stock or plate.
It is still the case that casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining are more prevalent than additive manufacturing in metalworking, but AM is now beginning to make significant inroads, and with the advantages of design for additive manufacturingit is clear to engineers that much Que es tridimensional yahoo dating is to come. As technology matured, several authors had begun to speculate that 3D printing could aid in sustainable development in the developing world. STL is not tailored for additive manufacturing
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating it generates large file sizes of topology optimised parts and Que es tridimensional yahoo dating structures due to the large number of surfaces involved.
It stores information using curved triangulations. Before printing a Que es tridimensional yahoo dating model from an STL file, it must first be examined for errors. A Que es tridimensional yahoo dating in the STL generation known Que es tridimensional yahoo dating "repair" fixes such problems in the original model.
Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a "slicer," which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer FDM printers. Construction of a model with contemporary methods can take anywhere from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model.
Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, although it varies widely depending on the type of
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously. Traditional techniques like injection moulding can be less expensive for manufacturing polymer products in high Que es tridimensional yahoo dating, but additive manufacturing can be faster, more flexible and less expensive when producing relatively small quantities of parts.
Seemingly paradoxicmore complex objects can be cheaper for 3D printing production than less complex objects. Though the printer-produced resolution sufficient for many applications, printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and Que es tridimensional yahoo dating removing material  with a higher-resolution subtractive process can achieve greater precision.
The layered structure of all Additive Manufacturing processes leads inevitably to a strain-stepping effect on part surfaces which are curved or tilted in respect to the building platform. The effects strongly depend on the orientation of a part surface inside the building process.
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating printable polymers such as ABSallow the surface finish to be smoothed and improved using chemical vapor processes  based on acetone or similar solvents.
Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts. These techniques are
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously, and would not necessarily require painting. Some printing Que es tridimensional yahoo dating require internal supports to be built for overhanging features Que es tridimensional yahoo dating construction.
These supports must be mechanically removed or dissolved upon completion of the print. All of the commercialized metal 3D printers involve cutting the metal component off the metal substrate after deposition. A new process for the GMAW 3D printing allows for substrate surface modifications to remove aluminum  or steel.
A large number of additive processes are available. The main differences between processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why companies offer a choice Que es tridimensional yahoo dating powder and polymer for the material used to build the object. The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, costs of the 3D printer, of the printed prototype, choice and cost of the materials, and color capabilities.
However less expensive printers can be used to make a mold, which is then used to make metal parts. Some methods melt or soften the material to produce the layers.
In Fused filament fabricationalso known as Fused deposition modeling FDMthe model Que es tridimensional yahoo dating part is produced by extruding small beads or streams of material which harden immediately to form layers. A filament of thermoplasticmetal wire, or other material is fed into an extrusion nozzle head 3D printer extruderwhich heats the material and turns the flow on and off. FDM is somewhat restricted in the variation of shapes that may be fabricated.
Another technique fuses parts of the layer and then moves upward in the working area, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up. This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced, which reduces the need for temporary auxiliary supports the piece. Laser sintering techniques include selective laser sinteringwith both metals and polymers, and direct metal laser sintering.
Electron beam melting is a similar type of additive manufacturing technology for metal parts e. EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum. With laminated object manufacturingthin layers are cut to shape and joined together.
Other methods cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies, such as stereolithography. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography to produce a solid part from a liquid. Each layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D micro-fabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerisation.
Due to the nonlinear nature of photo excitation, the gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused while the remaining gel is then washed away. In Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography, a 3D digital model is sliced by a set of horizontal planes.
Each slice is converted into a two-dimensional mask image. The mask image
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating then projected onto a photocurable liquid resin surface and light is projected onto the resin to cure it in the shape of the layer. Part of the pool bottom is transparent to ultraviolet light the "window"which causes the resin to solidify.
The object rises slowly enough to resin to flow under and Que es tridimensional yahoo dating contact with the bottom of the object.
The powder fed directed energy process is similar to Selective Sintering, but the metal powder is applied only where material is being added to the part at that moment. For example, General Electric uses the high-end model to Que es tridimensional yahoo dating parts for turbines. Higher education has proven to be a major buyer of desktop and professional 3D printers which industry experts generally view as a positive indicator.
In the current scenario, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing has been used in manufacturing, medical, industry and sociocultural sectors which facilitate 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing to Que es tridimensional yahoo dating successful commercial technology. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of Que es tridimensional yahoo dating parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods such as CNC milling, turning, and precision grinding.
Additive manufacturing of food is being developed by squeezing out food, layer by layer, into three-dimensional objects. A large variety of foods are appropriate candidates, such as chocolate and candy, and flat foods such as crackers, pasta,  and pizza. On-demand customization of glasses is possible with rapid prototyping. Vanessa Friedman, fashion director and chief fashion critic at The New York Times, says 3D printing will have a significant value for fashion companies down the road, especially if it transforms into a print-it-yourself tool for shoppers.
In cars, trucks, and aircraft, Additive Manufacturing is beginning to transform both 1 unibody and fuselage design and production and 2 powertrain design and production. AM's impact on firearms involves two dimensions: Inthe US-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to design a working plastic 3D printed firearm "that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer.
Surgical uses of 3D printing-centric therapies have a history beginning in the mids with anatomical modeling for bony reconstructive surgery planning.
Patient-matched implants were a natural extension of this work, leading to truly personalized implants that Que es tridimensional yahoo dating one unique individual.
The use of additive manufacturing for serialized production of orthopedic implants metals is also increasing due to the ability to efficiently create porous surface structures that facilitate Que es tridimensional yahoo dating. Que es tridimensional yahoo dating hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest area of future development using the custom 3D printing technology.
In Marchsurgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident. In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems.
In3D printing technology was used es tridimensional yahoo dating the first time to create a matrix for cell immobilization in fermentation.
Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized on 3D-printed nylon beads was chosen as a model study. It was shown that those 3D-printed beads were capable to promote high density cell attachment and propionic acid production, which could be adapted to other fermentation bioprocesses.
Inacademic journals had
Que es tridimensional yahoo dating to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology. Off the shelf machines were incerasingly capable of producing practical household applications, for example, ornamental objects.
Objects can be of scarcely any shape or geometry and typically are produced using digital model documents from a 3D epitome or another electronic statistics source such as an Additive Manufacturing File AMF file usually in progressive layers. Thus, unlike materialistic removed from a hackneyed in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing builds a three-dimensional object from a computer-aided design CAD mould or AMF file, all things considered by successively adding constituents layer by layer.
The term "3D printing" at referred to a deal with that deposits a binder material onto a control bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer. More recently, the qualifications is being used in popular vernacular to encompass a wider variety of additive manufacturing techniques. Synergetic States and global technological standards use the decided term additive manufacturing on this broader sense.
The umbrella term additive manufacturing AM gained wide currency in the s,  inspired by the topic of material being added together in any of various ways. In divergence, the term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large strain of machining processes with material removal as their common theme.
The semester 3D printing still referred only to the polymer technologies in most minds, and the term AM was likelier to be used in metalworking and end use part creation contexts than among polymer, inkjet, or stereolithography enthusiasts. By the early s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing evolved senses in which they were alternate umbrella terms for additive technologies, rhyme being used in ordinary vernacular by consumer-maker communities and the media, and the other used more formally by industrial end-use part producers, machine manufacturers, and global technical standards organizations.
Until recently, the term 3D printing has been associated with machines low-end in price or in capability. Peter Zelinski, the editor-in-chief of Additive Manufacturing magazine, pointed unlit in that the terms are still often synonymous in casual usage  but that some manufacturing industry experts are increasingly making a sense division whereby Additive Manufacturing comprises 3D printing plus other technologies or other aspects of a manufacturing operation.
Other terms that set up been used as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturing , fast manufacturing as the judicious production-level successor to express prototyping , and on-demand manufacturing which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing.
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Send the link below via email or IM Copy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Anti-gravity Cloak of invisibility Digital scent technology Force field Plasma window Immersive virtual reality Magnetic refrigeration Phased-array optics. Naomi Wu regards the usage of 3D printing in the Chinese classroom where rote memorization is standard to teach design principles and creativity as the most exciting recent development of the technology, and more generally regards 3D printing as being the next desktop publishing revolution.
To avoid the tedious and time-consuming aspects of the current fabrication processes, researchers are exploring an appropriate manufacturing approach for effective fabrication of soft actuators.
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