National Academies Press US ; Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary28th edition. Hasselbladand R. Meta-Analysis by the Confidence Profile Method. Analysis of Health Research Data. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. A sampling method by which the sample is taken from groups or batches as they Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality a specified time point, e. The late clinical stage of infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIVrecognized as a distinct syndrome in A procedure in which an initial set of subjects is selected by a sampling procedure and, whenever the variable of interest of a selected subject satisfies a given criterion, additional subjects whose values are in the neighborhood of those for that subject are added to the sample.
A sampling procedure in which the selection process depends on the observed values of some variables of interest. A term used when the effect of administering two treatments together is the sum of their separate effects.
A model in which the combined effect of several factors is the sum of the effects that would be produced by each of the Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality in the absence of the others. A procedure for summarization of a statistical measure in which the effects of differences in composition of the population being compared have been minimized by statistical methods.
Examples are adjustment by regression analysis and by standardization. An undesirable or unwanted consequence experienced by a subject during a clinical trial irrespective of the relationship to the study treatment. A procedure for adjusting rates, e. Any systematic process that consists of an ordered sequence of steps in which each step depends on the outcome of the previous one. The value of a is usually 0. An extension of the analysis of variance that allows consideration of Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality possible effects of covariates on the response variable, in addition to the effects of the factor or treatment variables.
The covariates are assumed to be unaffected by treatments, and in general, their relationship to the response is
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality to be linear. A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variations in the mean value of a continuous dependent variable. The total variance of a set of observations
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality partitioned according to different factors, e.
Differences between means can then be assessed. A transformation of the form 2 arc sinused to stabilize the variance of a binomial random variable. A sampling Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality in which a geographical region is subdivided into smaller areas counties, villages, city blocks, etc.
A useful Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality of summarizing the information from a series of measurements made on an individual over time or for a doseresponse curve. Calculated by adding the areas under the curve between each pair of consecutive observations, using for example, the trapezium rule.
The treatment designated to be given to a patient in a clinical trial as indicated at the time of enrollment. Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality dependence between two or more events, characteristics, or other variables.
Most often applied in the context of binary variables forming a two-by-two contingency table. A positive association between two variables exists when the occurrence of higher values of a variable is associated with the occurrence of higher values of another variable.
A negative association exists when the occurrence of higher values of one variable is associated with lower values of the other variable. The cumulative incidence of a disease or condition in a particular group, during a limited period of time, or under special circumstances as an epidemic. A measure of Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality association between exposure to a particular factor and the risk of a particular outcome, calculated as: An average value represents or summarizes the relevant features of a set of values, and in this sense the term includes the median and the mode.
An experimental design in which the same number of observations is taken for each combination of the experimental factors.
A graphical representation for displaying discrete data organized in such a way that each observation can fall into one and only one category of the variable. Frequencies are listed along one axis, and categories of the variable are listed along the other axis.
The frequencies of each group of observations are represented by the lengths of the corresponding bars. The shape taken by the hazard rate for the Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality of death in humans.
It is relatively high during the first year of life, decreases fairly soon to a minimum, and begins to climb again sometime around ages 45 to An interval of a posterior distribution such that the density at any point inside the interval is greater than the density at any point outside.
For any probability level, there is generally only one such interval, which is often known as the highest posterior density region. Statistical inference based on Bayes's theorem. The focus of the Bayesian approach is the probability distribution of any unknowns, given available information.
The process deals with probabilities of hypotheses and probability distributions of parameters, which are not taken into account in classical statistical inference.
A theorem in probability theory named after Thomas Bayes —an English clergyman and mathematician. It is a procedure for revising and updating the probability of some event
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality the light of new evidence. In its simplest form, the Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality is written in terms of conditional probabilities as: The overall probability of an event among a population before knowing the presence or absence of new evidence is called prior probability.
The updated probability of the event after receiving new information is called posterior probability.
A probability distribution having the overall shape of a vertical cross-section of a bell. Examples are normal distribution and Student's t distribution. The ratio of net present value of measurable benefits to costs. Calculation of a benefit-cost ratio is used to determine the economic feasibility or success of a program. The probability of a Type II error. Deviation of results or inferences from the truth or processes leading to such a deviation.
Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth.
Statistical bias occurs when Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality extent to which the statistical method used in a study does not estimate the quantity thought to be estimated or does not test the hypothesis to be tested.
A variable having only two possible values, usually labeled 0 or 1. Data involving this type of variable often require specialized statistical techniques such as logistic regression. The Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality distribution of the number of occurrences of a binary event in a sample of n independent observations.
The distribution is associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes, e. The quantitative evaluation of the potency of a substance by assessing its effects on tissues, cells, live experimental animals, or humans. The degree to which clinically important outcomes of treatment by a new preparation resemble those of a previously established preparation.
Trials out to compare two or more formulations of a drug containing the same active ingredient to determine whether the different formulations give rise to comparable levels in blood. The effect of treatment for all persons who receive the therapeutic agent to which they were assigned.
It measures the biological action of a treatment among compliant persons. The criterion that an observed, presumably or putatively causal association fits previously existing biological or medical knowledge. The application of statistical methods to the study of numerical data on the basis of observations of biological phenomena. A graphical display of multivariate data designed to show any structure, pattern, or relationship between variables.
A procedure used in clinical trials to avoid the possible bias that might be introduced if the patient or doctor, or both, knew which treatment the patient would be receiving. A trial is double blind if both patient and doctor are not aware of treatment given; if either the doctor or the patient is not aware of treatment given, the trial is single blind.
A term used in experimental design to refer to
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality homogeneous grouping of experimental units designed to enable the experimenter to isolate and, if necessary, eliminate variability due to extraneous causes. A random allocation procedure used to keep the numbers of subjects in different groups of a clinical trial closely balanced at all times.
Varieties of tests using electrophoresis, nucleic acid base pairing, or protein-antibody interaction to detect and identify DNA or RNA in samples. The Southern blot is used to identify a specific segment of DNA in a sample. The Northern blot detects and identifies samples of RNA. The Western blot is widely used in a test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection. A data-based simulation method for statistical inference that can be used to study the variability of estimated characteristics of the probability distribution of a set of observations and provide confidence intervals for parameters in situations in which these are difficult or impossible to derive in the usual way.
A procedure for guarding against an increase in the Type I error when performing multiple significance tests. This method is acceptable for a small number of simultaneous
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality to be performed up to five. The relating of causes to the effects that they produce.
This effect need not be the sole result of the one cause. Any given cause may be necessary, sufficient, neither necessary nor sufficient, Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality both necessary
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality sufficient.
Observation with an unknown value due to the occurrence of an event e. The tendency for the sampling distribution of means to be
Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality normal Gaussian distribution, even if the data do not have a Gaussian distributionfor sufficiently large numbers of subjects. A property of the distribution of a variable usually measured by statistics such as the mean, median, and mode.
In genetics, the presence in an individual of cells of different origin, such as of blood cells derived from a dizygotic cotwin. The probability distribution of the sum of squares of a number of independent standard normal variables. Any statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests e.
These tests usually involve counts of data and may involve comparison of samples from the distribution under study or comparison of a sample to a theoretically expected distribution. A test applied to a two-dimensional contingency table in which one variable has two categories and the other has k ordered categories to assess whether there is a difference in the trend of the proportions in the two groups. A procedure designed to provide insight into the structure of a clinical problem and to identify the main determinants of diagnostic and therapeutic choice.
This procedure is useful to Binomial random variable definition statistics of sexual immorality numbers of clinical cases, even to a single patient see n -of-1 study.
The procedure has four stages: Definition of the clinical problem and structuring it as a decision tree. This includes description of the patient, of the possible diagnostic and therapeutic actions, and of the possible outcomes after treatment.