Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language wordsgrammaror syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred textshave helped shape the very languages into which Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi have translated.
Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": The Germanic languages except for modern Dutch and some Slavic languages have calqued words for the concept of "translation" on translatio. Strictly speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word.
Nevertheless, "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation.
Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase literal translation and paraphrase.
This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator Dryden —who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalentsfor the expressions used in the source language:.
Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of "imitation", i. Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi general formulation of the central concept of translation— equivalence —is as adequate as any that has been proposed since Cicero
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi Horacewho, in 1st-century-BCE Romefamously and literally cautioned against translating "word
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi word" verbum pro verbo.
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Agesand adapters in various periods especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th centurytranslators have Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi shown prudent flexibility seeking equivalents —" literal " where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" e.
In general, have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememesand hence word order —when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voiceor vice versa. The grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages  e.
EnglishFrenchGerman and "free-word-order" languages  e. When a target Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are " untranslatable " among the modern European languages.
Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them. However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language.
The translator's role as a bridge for "carrying across" values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terencethe 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translator's role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist. The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi. Dryden observed that "Translation is a type of drawing after life If translation be an art, it is no easy one.
In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator must know both languagesas well as the science that he is to translate; and finding that few translators did, he wanted to do away with translation and translators altogether.
The translator of the Bible into German, Martin Luther —is credited with being the first European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language. Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, "it has been axiomatic" that one translates only toward his own language. Compounding the demands
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating.
The Scottish historian Alexander Tytlerin his Essay on the Principles of Translationemphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries. The translator's special role in society is described in a posthumous essay by "Poland's La Fontaine ", the Roman Catholic Primate of Polandpoetencyclopedistauthor of the first Polish novel, and translator from French and Greek, Ignacy Krasicki:. Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions.
The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations. Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments. Also, though heavily influenced by Western traditions and practiced by translators taught in Western-style educational systems, Chinese and related translation traditions retain some theories and philosophies to the Chinese tradition.
Traditions of Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi material among the languages of ancient EgyptMesopotamiaAssyria Syriac languageAnatoliaand Israel Hebrew language go back several millennia.
There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh c. There is a separate tradition of translation
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi SouthSoutheast and East Asia primarily of texts from the Indian and Chinese civilizationsconnected especially with the Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi of religious, particularly Buddhisttexts and with the governance of the Chinese empire.
Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation. In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system.
Notable is the Japanese kanbuna system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers. Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government. Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry [writes Link] must simply be set aside as untranslatable. The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi important but untranslatable dimension.
Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei with More Ways ], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle.
Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness Another imponderable is how to imitate therhythm in which five- syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read.
Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting.
Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry. Each syllable character belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring. Once the untranslatables have been set aside, the problems for a translator, especially of Chinese poetry, are two: What does the translator think the poetic line says?
And once he thinks he understands it, how can he render it into the target language? Most of the difficulties, according to Link, arise in addressing the second problem, "where the impossibility of perfect answers spawns endless debate. At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem.
Chinese characters, in avoiding grammatical specificity, offer advantages to poets and, simultaneously, challenges to poetry translators that are associated primarily with absences of subjectnumberand tense. It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects ; the reader or listener infers a subject. Some Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Weinberger points out, however, that when an "I" as a subject is inserted, a "controlling individual mind of the poet" enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line.
Without a subject, he writes, "the becomes both universal and immediate to the reader. Nouns have no number in Chinese.
Chinese verbs are tense -less: For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity. According to Link, Weinberger's insight about subjectlessness—that it produces an effect "both universal and immediate"—applies to timelessness as well.
Link proposes a kind of uncertainty principle that may be applicable not only to translation from the Chinese language, but to all translation:. Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved.
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.
Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires.
Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic. In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions. Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi close contacts and exchanges.
Especially after the RenaissanceEuropeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins. Arabic and, to a lesser degree, Persian became important sources of material and perhaps of techniques for revitalized Western Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions.
In the 19th century, after the Middle East 's Islamic clerics and copyists. Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one. In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge. Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi information on virtually anything that interested them. Between and The most prominent among them Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi al-Muqtataf A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi —73who had spent five years in Paris in the late s, teaching religion to Muslim students.
This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention. The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntaxand directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions.
Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticismwrites Christopher de Bellaigue"with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness.
It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world. One of the most influential liberal Islamic thinkers of the time was Muhammad Abduh —Egypt's senior judicial authority—its chief mufti —at the turn of the 20th century and an admirer of Darwin who in visited Darwin's exponent Herbert Spencer at his home in Brighton.
Spencer's view of society as an organism with its own laws of evolution paralleled Abduh's ideas. After World War Iwhen Britain and France divided up the Middle East's countries, apart from Turkey, between them, pursuant to the Sykes-Picot agreement —in violation of solemn wartime promises of postwar Arab autonomy—there came an immediate reaction: Fidelity or "faithfulness" and felicity  or transparencydual ideals in translation, are often though not always at odds.
Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom.
John Dryden — wrote in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:. Where I have taken away some of [the original authors'] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg'd them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc'd from him; or at least, if Hookup a
Hookup a player advice vs advise meaning in marathi advice vs advise meaning in marathi those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou'd probably have written.
A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity faithfulness is said to be "faithful"; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, " idiomatic ".